LanguageUrdu. Allah Pak Ki Nisbat Hindoun Ka Aitiqad,Makhloqat Ki Jinsain Aur Un Ka Naam,. IdentifierKitab-Ul-HindAlberoni. Syed Ali Asghar Anjuman E Taraqqi E Urdu Delhi dc. drugchoueterdilist.cfpe: application/pdf Kitabul Hind Alberuni. Kitab-ul-Hind. Collectionurduislamicbooks; additional_collections. Language Urdu. Kitab-ul-Hind Urdu Islamic Books Collection. Additional.

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    Kitab Ul Hind In Urdu Pdf

    Kitab Ul Hind (The India Book). Front Cover. Urdu Movies. 1 Review · Preview this book». What people are saying - Write a review. We haven't found any. Urdu: Download Pdf This is a very brief history covering only limited time period.. . Unit 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 of Al Kitab Al Asasi Book 1 in Urdu. book Kitab ul hind ahl e hadeesin PDF format. Download Kitab Ul Hind by author Abu Rehan Al-Bairooni · Download. Related Books.

    Many consider Al-Biruni one of the greatest scientists in history, and especially of Islam because of his discoveries and methodology. He lived during the Islamic Golden Age, which promoted astronomy and encouraged all scholars to work on their research. There he corresponded with Avicenna [20] and there are extant exchanges of views between these two scholars. There he wrote his first important work, al-Athar al-Baqqiya 'an al-Qorun al-Khaliyya literally: "The remaining traces of past centuries" and translated as "Chronology of ancient nations" or "Vestiges of the Past" on historical and scientific chronology, probably around A. He also visited the court of the Bavandid ruler Al-Marzuban. Accepting the definite demise of the Afrighids at the hands of the Ma'munids, he made peace with the latter who then ruled Khwarezm.


    Our homework is complete to get Kashmir. This, in fact, is the opinion of the majority of the Ulema, qualified Islamic scholars. Jihadists have differed on interpreting the Hadith, especially in the aftermath of the September 11, attacks, when al-Qaeda was uprooted from Afghanistan and the Pakistani government led by General Pervez Musharraf chose to side, albeit only partially, with the United States. Divisions among jihadists about attitudes toward the Pakistani state and government are reflected in their interpretation of Ghazwa-e-Hind as directed solely against modern-day India or encompassing also Pakistan.

    For some time, discussion of the epic battle for India diminished in the jihadi discourse while grand strategies for the expulsion of Western influence from the Middle East took center stage. In their interpretation, the reference to India is said to cover Afghanistan, Pakistan and India. One such article argued that the jihad in Pakistan did not depend upon the American presence in Afghanistan, as the jihadists were fighting for the implementation of Sharia in Pakistan and to avenge the deaths of prominent jihadists at the hands of the duplicitous Pakistani regime.

    It does not matter even if the Americans leave Afghanistan. Al-Qaeda has apparently sought support from Kashmiri and Uygur groups for its expanded battle on the Indian subcontinent.

    The operation was most likely undertaken by terrorists who had already been operating with one of several regional groups active on behalf of al-Qaeda. But in the event, al-Qaeda sought credit for the parent group, almost as if it sought to assert its brand against the appeal of ISIS.

    We shall never forget your oppression of our brothers in Kashmir, Gujarat, and Assam; and you shall reap what you have sowed. In his call for global jihad, Baghdadi listed the countries and regions where mosques were being desecrated and Islamic sanctities violated.

    For your brothers all over the world are waiting for your rescue, and are anticipating your brigades. It is enough for you to just look at the scenes that have reached you from Central Africa, and from Burma before that. What is hidden from us is far worse. So by Allah, we will take revenge. In the past, al-Qaeda has successfully recruited fighters from each of these countries and regions. Abdul Rehman al-Hindi had surfaced a year earlier with calls for Indian Muslims to join the group and wage jihad.

    This disgraceful pacifism will not benefit you, so why do you wait until your women are raped and blood of your sons spilled? During his stay at Ghazni, he must have had greater opportunities of pursuing his studies on India.

    The city contained a number of Indian Prisoners of war, skilled artisans and learned men who were brought over in the wake of Sultan Mahmud's invasion of India. Moreover, the Punjab with its large majority of the Hindus had become a part of the Ghaznavid empire.

    Al-Beruni must have come in contact with many learned scholars. Many important Indian works on astronomy, mathematics and medicine were translated into Arabic during the early Abbassid period. Al-Beruni mentions the names of of his books in a letter which he wrote to a friend some 13 years before his death. Unlike the prevalent Puranic traditions of recording the genealogies or the west Asian Tarikh tradition of narrating the political history in a chronological manner, the work is of a very critical nature.

    Al-Beruni's long account is divided into 80 chapters each with a sub-heading indicating the topics which it relates. The first chapter is an introduction where he writes about the difficulties he faced while writing an account of the Indian society and the methodologies adopted by him. His writing indicates a modern scientific methodology and a comparative approach.

    Al-Beruni's comments on Indian society are very significant, especially in the caste system. No such detailed and perceptive account of the caste system as it prevailed in early medieval India is available in any other non-Indian source. He explains the origin of the caste system as the work of Kings of ancient period and says that if a new order of things in political or social life is introduced by a strong-minded individual and supported by religious sanction, it gradually turns into the accepted social norm.

    He speaks of the existence of eight classes of people outside the varna order, segregated in accordance with their occupation and guilds. These were: fuller, shoemaker, juggler, basket and shield maker, the sailor, fisherman, hunter of wild animals and birds, and weaver.

    These guilds, we are informed do not live with the rest of the community and generally had their living quarters on the periphery or outskirts of towns and villages. Sachau , , 67 class of people called Hadi, Doma Domba , Chandala and Badhatau are also mentioned as apart from any guild or caste and generally occupied with dirty work like manual scavenging and cleaning. He mentions about the inter-caste marriages and writes that it was common among the Antayaja those who were not reckoned among any caste.

    He also mentions about Polygamy in his book and writes that some Hindus were of the view that the number of wives depends on the caste, that a Brahman could take four wives, a Kshatriya three, a Vaisya two and a Sudra one accordingly. He also takes notice of ancient Indian traditions and writes about them in his book. The most prominent of both modern and ancient astronomers have deeply studied the question of the moving of the earth, and tried to refute it.

    We, too, have composed a book on the subject called Miftah-ilm-alhai'a Key to Astronomy , in which we think we have surpassed our predecessors, if not in the words, at all events in the matter. In his description of Sijzi's astrolabe he hints at contemporary debates over the movement of the earth. He carried on a lengthy correspondence and sometimes heated debate with Ibn Sina , in which Biruni repeatedly attacks Aristotle's celestial physics: In his major extant astronomical work, the Mas'ud Canon , Biruni utilizes his observational data to disprove Ptolemy's immobile solar apogee.

    He drew many different depictions of various instruments that are considered to be the precursors of more modern objects such as clocks and the astrolabe, in which other scientists were able to use to complete these inventions in the coming years. Along with those methods, Biruni went so far as to describe instruments that go along with each of those areas as well. Although he never entirely focuses just on physics in any of his books, the study of physics is present throughout many of his various works.

    Biruni also came up with different hypotheses about heat and light. The result of his discovery of radius measurement was due to Biruni's arduous research about the earth. In his Codex Masudicus , Al-Biruni theorized the existence of a landmass along the vast ocean between Asia and Europe , or what is today known as the Americas. He deduced its existence on the basis of his accurate estimations of the Earth's circumference and Afro-Eurasia 's size, which he found spanned only two-fifths of the Earth's circumference, and his discovery of the concept of specific gravity , from which he deduced that the geological processes that gave rise to Eurasia must've also given rise to lands in the vast ocean between Asia and Europe.

    He also theorized that the landmass must be inhabited by human beings, which he deduced from his knowledge of humans inhabiting the broad north-south band stretching from Russia to South India and Sub-Saharan Africa , theorizing that the landmass would most likely lie along the same band. Biruni's most important work was a major pharmacopoeia , the "Kitab al-saydala fi al-tibb" Book on the Pharmacopoeia of Medicine , describing essentially all the medicines known in his time. Due to an apparatus he constructed himself, he succeeded in determining the specific gravity of a certain number of metals and minerals with remarkable precision.

    He elaborated upon the fact that the earth was created from the elements and not solely through divine creation. Even though Islam did influence his study, he did acknowledge the role of the elements. He treated religions objectively, striving to understand them on their own terms rather than trying to prove them wrong.

    His underlying concept was that all cultures are at least distant relatives of all other cultures because they are all human constructs.

    Al-Biruni divides Hindus into an educated and an uneducated class. He describes the educated as monotheistic, believing that God is one, eternal, and omnipotent and eschewing all forms of idol worship.

    He recognizes that uneducated Hindus worshipped a multiplicity of idols yet points out that even some Muslims such as the Jabiriyya have adopted anthropomorphic concepts of God. Al-Biruni wrote about the peoples, customs and religions of the Indian subcontinent.

    According to Akbar S.

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    Ahmed, like modern anthropologists, he engaged in extensive participant observation with a given group of people, learnt their language and studied their primary texts, presenting his findings with objectivity and neutrality using cross-cultural comparisons. Akhbar S. Ahmed concluded that Al-Biruni can be considered as the first Anthropologist, [46] however, others argue that he hardly can be considered an anthropologist in the conventional sense. During his journey through India, military and political histories were not of Al-Biruni's main focus.

    Kitab Ul Hind In Urdu Pdf 31golkes by wensuperdurch - Issuu

    Instead, he decided to document the more civilian and scholarly areas of Hindu life such as culture, science, and religion. I shall not produce the arguments of our antagonists in order to refute such of them, as I believe to be in the wrong. My book is nothing but a simple historic record of facts. I shall place before the reader the theories of the Hindus exactly as they are, and I shall mention in connection with them similar theories of the Greeks in order to show the relationship existing between them.

    An example of Al-Biruni's analysis is his summary of why many Hindus hate Muslims. Biruni notes in the beginning of his book how the Muslims had a hard time learning about Hindu knowledge and culture. Moreover, Hindus in 11th century India had suffered waves of destructive attacks on many of its cities, and Islamic armies had taken numerous Hindu slaves to Persia, which—claimed Al-Biruni—contributed to Hindus becoming suspicious of all foreigners, not just Muslims.

    Hindus considered Muslims violent and impure, and did not want to share anything with them. Over time, Al-Biruni won the welcome of Hindu scholars. Al-Biruni collected books and studied with these Hindu scholars to become fluent in Sanskrit, discover and translate into Arabic the mathematics, science, medicine, astronomy and other fields of arts as practiced in 11th-century India. He was inspired by the arguments offered by Indian scholars who believed earth must be globular in shape, which is the only way to fully explain the difference in daylight hours by latitude, seasons and earth's relative positions with moon and stars.

    At the same time, Al-Biruni was also critical of Indian scribes who he believed carelessly corrupted Indian documents while making copies of older documents. One of the specific aspects of Hindu life that Al-Biruni studied was the Hindu calendar. His scholarship on the topic exhibited great determination and focus, not to mention the excellence in his approach of the in-depth research he performed. Biruni also employed astronomy in the determination of his theories, which were complex mathematical equations and scientific calculation that allows one to convert dates and years between the different calendars.

    The book does not limit itself to tedious records of battle because Al-Biruni found the social culture to be more important. The work includes research on a vast array of topics of Indian culture, including descriptions of their traditions and customs. Although he tried to stay away from political and military history, Biruni did indeed record important dates and noted actual sites of where significant battles occurred. Additionally, he chronicled stories of Indian rulers and told of how they ruled over their people with their beneficial actions and acted in the interests of the nation.

    But, his details are brief and mostly just list rulers without referring to their real names. He did not go on about deeds that each one carried out during their reign, which keeps in line with Al-Biruni's mission to try to stay away from political histories.

    Al-Biruni also described the geography of India in his work. He documented different bodies of water and other natural phenomena. These descriptions are useful to today's modern historians because they are able to use Biruni's scholarship to locate certain destinations in modern-day India.

    Historians are able to make some matches while also concluding that certain areas seem to have disappeared and been replaced with different cities. Different forts and landmarks were able to be located, legitimizing Al-Biruni's contributions with their usefulness to even modern history and archeology. The dispassionate account of Hinduism given by Al-Biruni was remarkable for its time.

    He stated that he was fully objective in his writings, remaining unbiased like a proper historian should. Biruni documented everything about India just as it happened.

    But, he did note how some of the accounts of information that he was given by natives of the land may not have been reliable in terms of complete accuracy, however, he did try to be as honest as possible in his writing.

    The lack of description of battle and politics makes those parts of the picture completely lost. However, Many have used Al-Biruni's work to check facts of history in other works that may have been ambiguous or had their validity questioned. Most of the works of Al-Biruni are in Arabic although he wrote one of his masterpieces, the Kitab al-Tafhim apparently in both Persian and Arabic, showing his mastery over both languages.

    Biruni wrote most of his works in Arabic, as the scientific language of his age, however, his Persian version of the Al-Tafhim [55] is one of the most important of the early works of science in the Persian language , and is a rich source for Persian prose and lexicography. After Al-Biruni's death, in the Ghaznavid dynasty and following centuries his work was not built on, nor referenced.

    It was only hundreds of years later in the West, that his books became read and referenced again, especially his book on India which became relevant to the British Empire's activity in India from the 17th century.

    The lunar crater Al-Biruni and the asteroid Al-Biruni were named in his honour. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the medieval Muslim scientist and scholar.

    For the lunar crater, see Al-Biruni crater. For the university, see Al-Beroni University. An imaginary rendition of Al Biruni on a Soviet post stamp. Kath , or Khiva , [1] Khwarezm , Afrighid dynasty modern-day Uzbekistan.

    Ghazni , Ghaznavid Empire modern-day Afghanistan. See also: Robarts — University of Toronto. Paris Firmin-Didot.

    In Frye, R. The Cambridge History of Iran: The period from the Arab invasion to the Saljuqs. Cambridge University Press. Understanding Other Religions: Al-Biruni's and Gadamer's "fusion of Horizons". The Chronology of Ancient Nations: