PDF | Virosomes are reconstituted viral envelopes that can fill in as vaccines and as vehicles for cell conveyance of different macromolecules. PDF | As from the last eras number of the revolution in the drug delivery Virosomes denotes such a unique system for presentation of antigen. ABSTRACT. Virosomes are reconstituted viral envelopes that can serve as vaccines and as vehicles for cellular delivery of various macromolecules.

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    Virosomes Pdf

    Virosomes are reconstituted viral envelopes that can fill in as vaccines and as The prospect of drug delivery and targeting systems utilizing virosomes is an. virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine technology, called virosomes, and their prospect of drug delivery and targeting using virosomes is an. review, we will discuss influenza virosomes as a versatile delivery system for molecules in vivo and a list of so far tested applications of virosomes as carrier of.

    This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract A virosome is an artificial envelope that includes viral surface proteins and lacks the ability to produce progeny virus. Virosomes are able to introduce an encapsulated macromolecule into the cytoplasm of cells using their viral envelope fusion ability. Moreover, virus-derived factors have an adjuvant effect for immune stimulation. Therefore, many virosomes have been utilized as drug delivery vectors and adjuvants for cancer therapy. This paper introduces the application of virosomes for cancer treatment. In Particular, we focus on virosomes derived from the influenza and Sendai viruses which have been widely used for cancer therapy. Influenza virosomes have been mainly applied as drug delivery vectors and adjuvants. By contrast, the Sendai virosomes have been mainly applied as anticancer immune activators and apoptosis inducers. Introduction Currently, general cancer therapies include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy, but all three have limitations. Applications of surgical and radiation therapy are limited to localized cancer. Chemotherapy is used for a wide range of cancers, including distant metastases, via the systemic administration of anti-cancer drugs; however, it also kills normal cells and induces severe side effects. Therefore, many groups are investigating ways to improve conventional treatments and to develop novel treatments for more effective cancer elimination with fewer side effects. In recent years, much attention has been paid to cancer immunotherapy, which stimulates anti-cancer immunity, and several cancer immunotherapy systems Provenge, Ipilimumab and anti-PD1 antibody have been developed [ 1 — 5 ].

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    Virosome Presents Multimodel Cancer Therapy without Viral Replication

    Jasinska et al. Curran and D. Duzgunes, Ed. Takimoto, G. Various cancer gene therapy methods have been reported, such as adoptive immunotherapy using ex vivo gene transfer to immune cells [ 19 ], intratumoral injection of cytokine genes [ 20 ], suicide gene therapy using the herpes virus thymidine kinase gene [ 21 ], and intratumoral injection of the p53 gene [ 22 ].

    To achieve high gene expression, viral vectors such as retrovirus and adenovirus vectors have been utilized. However, in general, cancer gene therapy has not had satisfactory therapeutic effects. Therefore, to enhance the cancer-cell-killing effect, viruses that replicate mainly in cancer cells have been used for treatment [ 23 ].

    Virosome Presents Multimodel Cancer Therapy without Viral Replication

    Various types of oncolytic viruses have been developed by isolating viruses with inherent tumor selectivity [ 24 , 25 ] and by engineering recombinant viruses [ 26 , 27 ]. Furthermore, the combination of an oncolytic virus and gene therapy has been applied for cancer treatment, such as vaccinia virus including the GM-CSF gene [ 28 ].

    Although these oncolytic viral treatments exhibited a strong therapeutic effect, safety might be a problem because the virus with an intact genome still exists in noncancerous cells [ 29 ]. An inactive virus that did not have the ability to amplify its progeny virus in host cells has also been used as a high-safety delivery vector for drugs and plasmids in cancer therapy.

    In particular, enveloped-virus-derived vectors have attracted attention because enveloped-vector-delivered molecules can escape endosomal degradation by direct introduction to the cytoplasm via membrane fusion [ 30 ]. A vector derived from an inactive enveloped virus is called a virosome, which is now an all-inclusive term for a reconstituted envelope that contains viral envelope proteins Figure 1 a or viral envelope particles Figure 1 b [ 31 ].

    Several types of virosomes have been generated, for example, virosomes based on influenza virus [ 32 ], hepatitis B virus [ 33 ], human immunodeficiency virus [ 34 ], Newcastle disease virus [ 35 ], and Sendai virus [ 36 , 37 ]. Harris J. Trends Genet. PubMed Google Scholar 6. Bagai S. PubMed Google Scholar 7. FEBS Lett. Ramani K. USA 95, — PubMed Google Scholar Sambrook J. Google Scholar Celis J.

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